Investigating the Factors that Affect Osteoporosis in an Aging Population


  • Mark Ashamalla School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia
  • Walee S. Malik University of British Columbia
  • Nicole Cahill-McMahon University of British Columbia
  • Jasmine Deol University of British Columbia
  • Jadin Sandhu University of British Columbia
  • Tracy Hu University of British Columbia



physical activity, nutrition, supplmentation, bone health, exercise, rehabilitation, risk factors


Background: Osteoporosis is a major public health issue that has been a large topic of discussion for the last 20 years. It is largely prevalent in an aging population and primarily in post-menopausal women. Sufferers of osteoporosis experience enhanced bone fragility, contributing to an increased risk of fractures and falls. Purpose: This student driven narrative review provides a brief overview of osteoporosis and examines the modifiable factors that contribute to the effects of osteoporosis in an aging population. Methods:  Information was gathered through databases including PubMed, UBC Library, and Google Scholar. Results: Adequate consumption of calcium and vitamin D as well as regular exercise are factors that are recommended to increase bone mineral density and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Additionally, engaging in alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle should be avoided to optimize bone health. Conclusion: Lifestyle factors and the consumption of relevant nutrients required for bone health can be modified in order to reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis in an aging population. Further research should aim to investigate the effects of a variety of different levels of physical activity and alcohol consumption, as well as the effects of calcium supplementation on cardiovascular health.




How to Cite

Ashamalla, M., Malik, W. S., Cahill-McMahon, N., Deol, J., Sandhu, J., & Hu, T. (2020). Investigating the Factors that Affect Osteoporosis in an Aging Population. The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada, 13(2), 30–36.