Does plyometric training avoid muscle bulking and adverse change in appearance of female physical education students?
Keywords: Gymnastics, Jumping ability, Limb circumferences, Physical appearance, Skinfolds
AbstractBackground: Female athletes who engage in competitions where performance is judged partly on appearance are sometimes concerned that intensive muscular training may produce bulky and unsightly muscles. Purpose: To make an objective examination of possible increases of limb bulk in response to plyometric training. Methods: Female physical education students (10 experimental and 10 control subjects) aged 21.2 3.1 and 21.9 2.9 years respectively undertook 8 weeks of plyometric training, with measurements of limb dimensions before and after training. Results: The experimental group developed expected improvements in countermovement jump scores. They showed a decrease of hip circumferences, but no change in thigh and calf circumferences; increases of muscle bulk were compensated by loss of superficial fat. Skinfolds and circumferences remained unchanged in the control group over the period of observation. Conclusions: It appears that plyometric training can enhance the physical performance of gymnasts without muscle bulking that could adversely affect physical appearance.
How to Cite
Taktak, F., Taktak, I., & Shephard, R. (2013). Does plyometric training avoid muscle bulking and adverse change in appearance of female physical education students?. The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada, 6(4), 116-122. https://doi.org/10.14288/hfjc.v6i4.152
THE PRACTITIONER'S CORNER
Terms of Publication
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the Health & Fitness Journal of Canadaâ€™s right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The Contributor (author(s)) represents and guarantees that the Contributor is the sole proprietor of the work and the Contributor has full power to make this Agreement and grant that the work does not infringe the copyright or other proprietary right of any other person; and the work contains no libellous or other unlawful matter and makes no improper invasion of the privacy of any other person. The Contributor also represents and is responsible for the accuracy of the work.
- The Contributor will read, correct, and return promptly galleys and page proofs to the Editor (or designate). The Contributor will be responsible for the completeness and accuracy of these corrections. If the Contributor does not return galleys and page proofs within the schedule agreed upon with the Editor (or designate), the Publisher may proceed without the Contributor corrections.
- When applicable, the Contributor agrees to obtain written permissions and letters of agreement for all matter contained in the work that is protected by existing copyright, paying any permission fees for the use of text or illustrations controlled by others, and furnishing the Publisher with written evidence of the copyright ownerâ€™s authorization to use the material.
- When applicable, the Contributor agrees to obtain written permission for inclusion of any photographic materials involving a human subject, and provide the Publisher with written evidence of the subjectâ€™s authorization to use this material. In the case of subjects who have not reached the age of majority, the Contributor agrees to obtain and furnish the Publisher with written permission from the parent and/or legal guardian.
- The Contributor may draw on and refer to material in the work in preparing other articles for publication in scholarly and professional journals and papers for delivery at professional meetings, provided that credit is given to the work and to the Publisher.
- This agreement may not be changed unless the Contributor and the Publisher agree to the change by means of a formal addendum signed by the Contributor and the Publisherâ€™s representative.
- This agreement shall be construed and governed according to the laws of the province of British Columbia and shall be binding upon the parties hereto, their heirs, successors, assigns, and personal representatives. Should any formal proceedings related to this agreement be brought, such formal proceeding may be brought only in the province of British Columbia.
By submitting an article to the Health & Fitness Journal of Canada the Contributor has accepted and agreed to all terms outlined in the copyright notice.