Benign prostate hyperplasia: a further reason to recommend regular physical activity?
Keywords: Distance running, Exercise medicine, Leisure activity, Lower urinary tract disorders, Occupational activity, Preventive medicine
AbstractObjectives: Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a major health concern, affecting a large proportion of older men. It reduces their quality of life and causes problems in urination that limit exercise, social involvement and normal sleep. Little is known concerning its etiology or prevention. The primary objective of the present review is to evaluate whether regular physical activity can help to diminish the risk of developing BPH. Methods: The Ovid/Medline and Pub-Med data bases were searched systematically from 1996 to May 2106, combining terms for physical activity (exercise, physical activity, sports, athletes, physical fitness and physical education/training) with the terms benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic hyperplasia. Results: Combining studies of occupational and leisure activity, 21 studies (4 covering both occupational and leisure activity) have now looked at the association between BPH and physical activity; 16 of these 21 analyses showed a trend to a lower risk of BPH in the more active individuals, with a significant advantage in 11 of the 16 evaluations. Most authors pointed to a progressive benefit with a greater frequency, intensity or volume of physical activity, but 2 reports found an adverse effect in highly committed exercisers. The optimum age for undertaking preventive activity remains unclear. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of BPH, and a high level of habitual physical activity may act mainly by reducing the risk of obesity. In studies with more vigorous exercise, a further factor may have been an activity-induced modulation of androgenic hormones. Conclusions: Lifelong physical activity is significantly associated with a reduced risk of BPH, and although causality has not been proven, this seems one more reason to encourage participation in regular physical activity. Motivation may not be easy in elderly men, but some data suggest that the risk of BPH is 25% lower in those walking for as little as 2-3 hours per week.
How to Cite
Shephard, R. J. (2016). Benign prostate hyperplasia: a further reason to recommend regular physical activity?. The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada, 9(2), 38-55. https://doi.org/10.14288/hfjc.v9i2.206
SYSTEMATIC OR NARRATIVE REVIEWS
Terms of Publication
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the Health & Fitness Journal of Canada’s right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The Contributor (author(s)) represents and guarantees that the Contributor is the sole proprietor of the work and the Contributor has full power to make this Agreement and grant that the work does not infringe the copyright or other proprietary right of any other person; and the work contains no libellous or other unlawful matter and makes no improper invasion of the privacy of any other person. The Contributor also represents and is responsible for the accuracy of the work.
- The Contributor will read, correct, and return promptly galleys and page proofs to the Editor (or designate). The Contributor will be responsible for the completeness and accuracy of these corrections. If the Contributor does not return galleys and page proofs within the schedule agreed upon with the Editor (or designate), the Publisher may proceed without the Contributor corrections.
- When applicable, the Contributor agrees to obtain written permissions and letters of agreement for all matter contained in the work that is protected by existing copyright, paying any permission fees for the use of text or illustrations controlled by others, and furnishing the Publisher with written evidence of the copyright owner’s authorization to use the material.
- When applicable, the Contributor agrees to obtain written permission for inclusion of any photographic materials involving a human subject, and provide the Publisher with written evidence of the subject’s authorization to use this material. In the case of subjects who have not reached the age of majority, the Contributor agrees to obtain and furnish the Publisher with written permission from the parent and/or legal guardian.
- The Contributor may draw on and refer to material in the work in preparing other articles for publication in scholarly and professional journals and papers for delivery at professional meetings, provided that credit is given to the work and to the Publisher.
- This agreement may not be changed unless the Contributor and the Publisher agree to the change by means of a formal addendum signed by the Contributor and the Publisher’s representative.
- This agreement shall be construed and governed according to the laws of the province of British Columbia and shall be binding upon the parties hereto, their heirs, successors, assigns, and personal representatives. Should any formal proceedings related to this agreement be brought, such formal proceeding may be brought only in the province of British Columbia.
By submitting an article to the Health & Fitness Journal of Canada the Contributor has accepted and agreed to all terms outlined in the copyright notice.