Sex differences in habitual physical activity of the elderly: Issues of measurement, activity patterns, barriers and health response
Keywords:Accelerometer, Activity patterns, All-cause death rates, Cardiovascular disease, Dependency, Fitness levels, Health outcomes, Intensity, Masters athletes, Metabolic risk factors, Neoplasms, Osteoporosis, Pedometer, Perceived barriers, Physical Activity Qu
AbstractA systematic review of sex differences in the habitual physical activity of the elderly covers articles published between 1966 and 2012. Both subject sampling and assessments of physical activity are liable to sex biases. Questionnaires have large systematic errors; often. they were designed for male populations, so that the common activities of many elderly women may be ignored. Pedometer/accelerometers generally give more accurate information on activity patterns tha questionnaires. But again, there are sex differences in the minimum periods of recording to overcome effects of the weekly routine, adverse weather conditions and seasonal variations. Men and women also differ in the times that they allocate to activities that are not well recorded by personal monitors. Doubly-labelled water (DLW) studies provide the gold standard of metabolic measurement, but particularly in elderly women, the daily intensity of physical activity rises so little above the resting state that DLW estimates of leisure activity lack precision.
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