https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/issue/feed The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada 2019-03-06T21:05:54-08:00 Dr. Shannon S. D. Bredin shannon.bredin@ubc.ca Open Journal Systems <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span lang="EN-CA">The Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada provides an effective medium for health and fitness practitioners, researchers, instructors, and the general population to provide insight into unique and innovative practice in health and fitness. It is our goal to make a journal that can be applied directly to improve the health and well-being of Canadian society.</span></p> https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/267 Does it matter if I am overweight? 2019-03-06T21:05:53-08:00 Roy J. Shephard royjshep@shaw.ca <p><strong>Objective. </strong>The objective of this narrative review is to consider the impact of various levels of obesity upon the risks of premature mortality, a reduced-quality-adjusted life span, and various clinically important co-morbidities.<strong> Methods. </strong>Information obtained from Ovid/Medline and Google Scholar through to November 2018 was supplemented by a search of the author's extensive personal files.<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; Results. </strong>Overweight has only a limited adverse effect upon these several risks, but dangers increase steeply with further fat accumulation; thus severe (type III) obesity greatly augments the risk of premature death, shortening a person's average lifespan by several years. In addition, the obese individual faces a substantial loss of quality-adjusted life years due to effects from various co-morbidities, including (in order of importance to health expectancy) problems arising from the heart and circulation, neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, vascular diseases of the brain, pneumonia and influenza, digestive and renal diseases, accidents and homicides. Various potential covariates of obesity have been considered in epidemiological analyses, but if habitual physical activity has been considered at all, it has typically been represented by a weak questionnaire assessment. Nevertheless, evidence is emerging that obesity and an inadequate level of habitual physical activity have at least partially independent adverse effects upon both life expectancy and quality-adjusted life span. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>Severe obesity has a substantial negative effect upon both life expectancy and quality-adjusted life span, thus providing yet one more good reason for health practitioners to advocate maintenance of an ideal body mass.</p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/269 Biomechanical Alterations during Aquatic Treadmill Running 2019-03-06T21:05:51-08:00 Nicholas James Held Nick.Held@fortiussport.com Christopher L MacLean christopher.maclean@fortiussport.com Darren ER Warburton darren.warburton@ubc.ca <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Water running, and more specifically aquatic treadmill (ATM) running, has become increasingly popular as part of the rehabilitation of injuries and as a means of cross training. <strong><em>Purpose:</em></strong> The primary purpose of this narrative review was to discuss the kinematic, kinetic, spatiotemporal, and muscle activation differences between ATM and land treadmill running. A secondary purpose was to examine the possible benefits and limitations of applying an ATM running intervention as a means for returning to run or sport were discussed. <strong><em>Methods:</em> </strong>A critical appraisal of the current literature revealed a series of studies related to ATM training and/or rehabilitation. <strong><em>Findings:</em></strong> Water provides a unique training and rehabilitation environment owing to the fluid forces acting upon the body during immersion. A growing body of evidence supports the safety and efficacy of ATM for both training and rehabilitation purposes. Current evidence indicates that ATM running does not result in differential biomechanical adaptations in comparison to land treadmill running. <strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Considering the potential beneficial characteristics of water immersion and the increasing popularity of ATM running, a clearer understanding of the biomechanical alterations is warranted in order to aid practitioners in enhancing outcomes when prescribing ATM running.</p> <p>Key Words: Biomechanics; Running; Aquatic Treadmill; Rehabilitation; Water</p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/270 The 2019 Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (PAR-Q+) and electronic Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examination (ePARmed-X+) 2019-03-06T21:05:50-08:00 Darren E. R. Warburton darren.warburton@ubc.ca Veronica Jamnik ronij@yorku.ca Shannon S. D. Bredin shannon.bredin@ubc.ca Roy J. Shephard royjshep@shaw.ca Norman Gledhill ngledhil@yorku.ca <p>This article contains the current 2019&nbsp;<strong>CONSENSUS PANEL APPROVED AND OFFICIAL&nbsp;</strong>version of the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (PAR-Q+). The new PAR-Q+ and ePARmed-X+ were introduced officially at the 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (May 5-8, 2010) by Drs. Darren Warburton, Norman Gledhill, Veronica Jamnik, and Shannon Bredin. The first peer reviewed article containing the PAR-Q+ was published in the Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada and subsequent updates have been made through this journal. Owing to the evidence-based nature of the PAR-Q+ and ePARmed-X+ both forms require routine update as the evidence expands. These ongoing revisions are made by the PAR-Q+ Collaboration and evaluated by an international consensus committee. This article contains the 2019 PAR-Q+ that includes significant changes from our original version. This version replaces all previous versions. This is the current evidence-based and consensus panel approved version of the PAR-Q+. We are indebted to the support provided by the American College of Sports Medicine and other international partners in the ongoing evaluation of the 2019 PAR-Q+.&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/271 The 2019 Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (PAR-Q+): French North America Version (Questionnaire sur l'aptitude à l'activité physique pour tous (2019 Q-AAP+)) 2019-03-06T21:05:48-08:00 Darren E. R. Warburton darren.warburton@ubc.ca Veronica Jamnik ronij@yorku.ca Shannon S. D. Bredin shannon.bredin@ubc.ca Roy J. Shephard ronij@yorku.ca Norman Gledhill ngledhil@yorku.ca <p>This article contains the current 2019&nbsp;<strong>CONSENSUS PANEL APPROVED AND OFFICIAL FRENCH</strong>&nbsp;version of the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (Questionnaire&nbsp;sur l'aptitude à l'activité physique pour tous (Q-AAP+)). This version replaces all previous versions. This is the current evidence-based and consensus panel approved version of the Q-AAP+.</p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/265 Indigenous Elders’ Role in Fostering Intergenerational Relationships with Youth 2019-03-06T21:05:54-08:00 Tommy Yang tommmyyang@gmail.com Darren E. R. Warburton darren.warburton@ubc.ca <p>The purpose of this student driven commentary is to explore the importance of intergenerational relationships between Indigenous Elders and youths. Indigenous Elders play an important role in fostering intergenerational relationships and passing on cultural and traditional teachings. They pass on traditional knowledges and lessons learned from a lifetime of experiences to the next generation through a variety of means (such as sharing circles and storytelling) to help future generations understand and honour the teachings and understandings of the generations before. Elders play a central role in the passing on of traditional beliefs, language, and cultural practices, which empower Indigenous youth to connect with family and community, promoting ties to the land. Elders are role models supporting a positive cultural identity and establishing ties to Indigenous traditions, values, and practices.</p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##