The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada 2019-06-10T16:18:26-07:00 Dr. Shannon S. D. Bredin Open Journal Systems <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span lang="EN-CA">The Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada provides an effective medium for health and fitness practitioners, researchers, instructors, and the general population to provide insight into unique and innovative practice in health and fitness. It is our goal to make a journal that can be applied directly to improve the health and well-being of Canadian society.</span></p> Canada’s New Healthy Eating Strategy: Implications for Health Care Professionals and a Call to Action 2019-05-01T21:32:48-07:00 Simon Bacon Norm R. C. Campbell Kim D. Raine Ross T. Tsuyuki Nadia A. Khan Manuel Arango Janusz Kaczorowski <p>Nearly two-thirds of all deaths worldwide are from noncommunicable chronic diseases, with a similar proportion in Canada. According to the Global Burden of Disease Study, unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and the second leading risk for disability in Canada. It is clear that to adequately address this major health issue, we need a comprehensive approach that includes strong governmental policy. In 2016, the Canadian government released its Healthy Eating Strategy, for which updating Canada’s Food Guide was a key element. The government released the first wave of documents (including the new food guide and dietary guidelines) in January 2019, with the healthy eating patterns guidance to follow later in 2019. Much of this work aligns with a number of policies that have been developed and adopted by the Canadian health and scientific organizations that are members of the Canadian Hypertension Advisory Committee. As such, the current editorial is a call to action for the health care and scientific community, both individuals and organizations, to ensure they have policies consistent with and supportive of those that have been developed through the Hypertension Advisory Committee collaboration and to actively participate in providing input and feedback on the Healthy Eating Strategy through the Health Canada Stakeholder Registry.</p> 2019-03-30T00:00:00-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On determining how much obesity is costing society 2019-05-01T21:32:47-07:00 Roy J. Shephard <p><strong>Objectives:&nbsp;</strong>The objectives of this narrative review are to examine techniques used in determining the health costs accrued by obese individuals, and to estimate the overall costs of the current obesity epidemic to society.<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; Methods:&nbsp;</strong>Information obtained from Ovid/Medline and Google Scholar through to August 2018 was supplemented by a search of the author's personal files.<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; Results:&nbsp;</strong>Reasons for undertaking an economic analysis of obesity include the generation of favourable publicity, reviewing the efficacy of current treatment programmes, considering the effects of expanding or compressing therapeutic options, and assessing the need for alternative treatments. Technical difficulties in making such estimates include both differences in the relative impacts of overweight, moderate and gross obesity and the more general issues faced by all health economists: differential rates of inflation, varying international exchange rates, an appropriate choice of discount rate, and regional differences in medical costs, treatment patterns, job participation rates, and employee benefits. Allowance must also be made for secular shifts in population profile, opportunity costs of obesity and its treatment, losses due to the premature death of workers, and the value of services contributed by volunteers. In most developed countries, an excessive accumulation of body fat accounts for 2-5% of total medical expenditures, and in the U.S. costs are as high as 5-9%, with even larger indirect costs. Problems arise when obese individuals travel by plane or car. Per capita greenhouse gas emissions are also greater for the obese, and they experience a significant loss of potential human capital. &nbsp;<strong>Discussion and Conclusions:&nbsp;</strong>The validity of current estimates of the economic costs of obesity remains vulnerable to a substantial interaction and overlap between charges attributable to obesity and those due to physical inactivity. The respective magnitude of these 2 effects remains to be clarified by careful multivariate analyses, using samples with reliable and valid objective measures of habitual physical activity. Such an analysis is important, because&nbsp;it should influence the allocation of resources for both prevention and treatment.</p> 2019-05-01T12:52:17-07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Lower Body Aquatic Plyometric Training: The Development of Evidence-Based Recommendations for Practitioners 2019-06-10T15:40:13-07:00 Nicholas James Held Andrew S Perrotta Lauren K Buschmann Shannon S.D. Bredin Darren E.R. Warburton <p><em>Objectives: </em>Plyometric exercises are often prescribed for enhancing athletic performance, however, this form of training can elicit significant skeletal loading which may defer practitioners from utilizing these exercises throughout rehabilitation. <em>Purpose</em>: 1) complete a systematic review to critically examine the efficacy of plyometric training performed in water when compared to land for eliciting changes in musculoskeletal markers of performance, and 2) to provide evidence-based recommendations for practitioners on how best to utilize this form of training in rehabilitation and return-to-play. <em>Methods</em><strong>:</strong> A systematic review was undertaken with relevant studies identified that compared changes in performance markers (e.g., strength, sprinting, and jumping) between the same aquatic- and land-based plyometric program were eligible for inclusion. Data was extracted using a standardized extraction form as confirmed by three reviewers. Data extraction included population characteristics, program design, and pre- and post- adaptations in strength, speed, and vertical jump. <em>Results:</em> Eight studies were included comparing performance outcomes following aquatic- and land-based plyometric training. The results of this review suggest that aquatic plyometric training is as effective as land-based plyometric training at improving lower body strength, sprint, and vertical jump performance. <em>Conclusions:</em> The utilization of aquatic plyometric training can be an important piece of the rehabilitation and return-to-play process in order to improve lower body strength, speed, and power while reducing the physical stress of land-based plyometric training.</p> 2019-02-18T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## I blame my parents for my waistline. But is this genetic alibi valid? 2019-06-10T16:18:26-07:00 Roy J. Shephard <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong><br> </strong></p> <p><strong>Roy J. Shephard<sup>1</sup></strong></p> <p><strong>____________________________________________________</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>The objectives of this narrative review are to consider the contribution of inherited factors to the development of obesity and its response to treatment, and the extent to which an adverse inheritance provides a "genetic alibi" to those who are obese. <strong>Methods. </strong>Information obtained from Ovid/Medline and Google Scholar through to December 2018 was supplemented by a search of the author's extensive personal files.<strong> Results. </strong> Animal models demonstrate that specific single genetic mutations can cause severe obesity, as in ob/ob and db/db mice and in the Zucker fatty rat. In humans, also, traditional genetic studies of adopted children, twins and entire families point to a substantial contribution of inheritance to such measures of obesity as BMI. However, perhaps because of a lesser impact of a shared family environment, estimates of heritability coefficients are substantially smaller for family studies (a 50th percentile coefficient of 0.46) than for twin studies (a 50th percentile coefficient of 0.75). Estimates of heritability vary widely for both approaches, with populations that are faced by an obesogenic environment tending to show higher values for coefficients derived from either type of data set. Attempts to link such heritability estimates to specific genetic sites have as yet been able to account for less than 5% of the total inter-individual variation in BMI. The main probable factors limiting the discovery of relevant chromosomal sites are a polygenic rather than monogenic basis for obesity and a strong modification of gene expression by epigenetic influences. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>Inherited factors appear to make a substantial contribution to the accumulation of body fat. Nevertheless, the validity of the "genetic alibi" is weakened in that dietary moderation and regular physical activity can greatly limit the phenotypic expression of obesity-inducing genetic characteristics.</p> 2019-02-18T00:00:00-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Importance of Spiritual Wellbeing in Community-Based Health Interventions in Indigenous Peoples in BC 2019-05-21T13:12:56-07:00 Michael Salloum <p><span class="s15">The health gap between Indigenous peoples and other populations</span> <span class="s15">in Canada</span><span class="s15"> is greater than </span><span class="s15">ever. V</span><span class="s15">arious health promotion and wellbeing </span><span class="s15">programs </span><span class="s15">in Indigenous communities </span><span class="s15">exist, but</span> <span class="s15">these programs </span><span class="s15">have been </span><span class="s15">ineffectual </span><span class="s15">partly </span><span class="s15">because they</span> <span class="s15">are </span><span class="s15">not </span><span class="s15">culturally sensitive </span><span class="s15">or </span><span class="s15">H</span><span class="s15">olistic</span><span class="s15">. The H</span><span class="s15">olistic </span><span class="s15">or Indigenous </span><span class="s15">method of health </span><span class="s15">is guided by the teachings of the </span><span class="s15">Medicine Wheel </span><span class="s15">and include </span><span class="s15">mental, physical</span><span class="s15">, emotional, and spiritual well</span><span class="s15">being. While current health programs </span><span class="s15">address </span><span class="s15">physi</span><span class="s15">cal, emotional, and mental well</span><span class="s15">being, they fai</span><span class="s15">l to incorporate spiritual well</span><span class="s15">being </span><span class="s15">becaus</span><span class="s15">e of how diffuse spiritual well</span><span class="s15">being is as a concept for health practitioners in Canada</span><span class="s15">. The following narrative discusses methods of integrating spiritual wellbeing into existing health progra</span><span class="s15">ms and explains how spiritual health</span><span class="s15">is essential in increasing compliance with health programming in Indigenous communities in </span><span class="s15">British Columbia</span><span class="s15">. </span><span class="s15">Two</span><span class="s15">UBC programs, </span><span class="s15">the </span><span class="s15">Summer Science and the Urban Aboriginal Community Kitchen Garden Project (known as Tu’Wusht), are used to </span><span class="s15">exemplify</span><span class="s15"> the need for spiritual</span><span class="s15"> health</span><span class="s15"> in </span><span class="s15">Indigenous </span><span class="s15">health programs</span><span class="s15"> across Canada</span><span class="s15">.</span></p> 2019-02-18T21:41:24-08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##