The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span lang="EN-CA">The Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada provides an effective medium for health and fitness practitioners, researchers, instructors, and the general population to provide insight into unique and innovative practice in health and fitness. It is our goal to make a journal that can be applied directly to improve the health and well-being of Canadian society.</span></p> en-US <p><strong>Terms of Publication</strong></p><p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada’s right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</li><li>The Contributor (author(s)) represents and guarantees that the Contributor is the sole proprietor of the work and the Contributor has full power to make this Agreement and grant that the work does not infringe the copyright or other proprietary right of any other person; and the work contains no libellous or other unlawful matter and makes no improper invasion of the privacy of any other person. The Contributor also represents and is responsible for the accuracy of the work.</li><li>The Contributor will read, correct, and return promptly galleys and page proofs to the Editor (or designate). The Contributor will be responsible for the completeness and accuracy of these corrections. If the Contributor does not return galleys and page proofs within the schedule agreed upon with the Editor (or designate), the Publisher may proceed without the Contributor corrections.</li><li>When applicable, the Contributor agrees to obtain written permissions and letters of agreement for all matter contained in the work that is protected by existing copyright, paying any permission fees for the use of text or illustrations controlled by others, and furnishing the Publisher with written evidence of the copyright owner’s authorization to use the material.</li><li>When applicable, the Contributor agrees to obtain written permission for inclusion of any photographic materials involving a human subject, and provide the Publisher with written evidence of the subject’s authorization to use this material. In the case of subjects who have not reached the age of majority, the Contributor agrees to obtain and furnish the Publisher with written permission from the parent and/or legal guardian.</li><li>The Contributor may draw on and refer to material in the work in preparing other articles for publication in scholarly and professional journals and papers for delivery at professional meetings, provided that credit is given to the work and to the Publisher.</li><li>This agreement may not be changed unless the Contributor and the Publisher agree to the change by means of a formal addendum signed by the Contributor and the Publisher’s representative.</li><li>This agreement shall be construed and governed according to the laws of the province of British Columbia and shall be binding upon the parties hereto, their heirs, successors, assigns, and personal representatives. Should any formal proceedings related to this agreement be brought, such formal proceeding may be brought only in the province of British Columbia.</li></ul><p>By submitting an article to the Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada the Contributor has accepted and agreed to all terms outlined in the copyright notice.</p> shannon.bredin@ubc.ca (Dr. Shannon S. D. Bredin) darren.warburton@ubc.ca (Dr. Darren Warburton) Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0800 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Does it matter if I am overweight? https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/267 <p><strong>Objective. </strong>The objective of this narrative review is to consider the impact of various levels of obesity upon the risks of premature mortality, a reduced-quality-adjusted life span, and various clinically important co-morbidities.<strong> Methods. </strong>Information obtained from Ovid/Medline and Google Scholar through to November 2018 was supplemented by a search of the author's extensive personal files.<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; Results. </strong>Overweight has only a limited adverse effect upon these several risks, but dangers increase steeply with further fat accumulation; thus severe (type III) obesity greatly augments the risk of premature death, shortening a person's average lifespan by several years. In addition, the obese individual faces a substantial loss of quality-adjusted life years due to effects from various co-morbidities, including (in order of importance to health expectancy) problems arising from the heart and circulation, neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, vascular diseases of the brain, pneumonia and influenza, digestive and renal diseases, accidents and homicides. Various potential covariates of obesity have been considered in epidemiological analyses, but if habitual physical activity has been considered at all, it has typically been represented by a weak questionnaire assessment. Nevertheless, evidence is emerging that obesity and an inadequate level of habitual physical activity have at least partially independent adverse effects upon both life expectancy and quality-adjusted life span. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>Severe obesity has a substantial negative effect upon both life expectancy and quality-adjusted life span, thus providing yet one more good reason for health practitioners to advocate maintenance of an ideal body mass.</p> Roy J. Shephard ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/267 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0800 Biomechanical Alterations during Aquatic Treadmill Running https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/269 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong> Water running, and more specifically aquatic treadmill (ATM) running, has become increasingly popular as part of the rehabilitation of injuries and as a means of cross training. <strong><em>Purpose:</em></strong> The primary purpose of this narrative review was to discuss the kinematic, kinetic, spatiotemporal, and muscle activation differences between ATM and land treadmill running. A secondary purpose was to examine the possible benefits and limitations of applying an ATM running intervention as a means for returning to run or sport were discussed. <strong><em>Methods:</em> </strong>A critical appraisal of the current literature revealed a series of studies related to ATM training and/or rehabilitation. <strong><em>Findings:</em></strong> Water provides a unique training and rehabilitation environment owing to the fluid forces acting upon the body during immersion. A growing body of evidence supports the safety and efficacy of ATM for both training and rehabilitation purposes. Current evidence indicates that ATM running does not result in differential biomechanical adaptations in comparison to land treadmill running. <strong><em>Conclusion:</em></strong> Considering the potential beneficial characteristics of water immersion and the increasing popularity of ATM running, a clearer understanding of the biomechanical alterations is warranted in order to aid practitioners in enhancing outcomes when prescribing ATM running.</p> <p>Key Words: Biomechanics; Running; Aquatic Treadmill; Rehabilitation; Water</p> Nicholas James Held, Christopher L MacLean, Darren ER Warburton ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/269 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0800 The 2019 Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (PAR-Q+) and electronic Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examination (ePARmed-X+) https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/270 <p>This article contains the current 2019&nbsp;<strong>CONSENSUS PANEL APPROVED AND OFFICIAL&nbsp;</strong>version of the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (PAR-Q+). The new PAR-Q+ and ePARmed-X+ were introduced officially at the 3rd International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health in Toronto, Ontario, Canada (May 5-8, 2010) by Drs. Darren Warburton, Norman Gledhill, Veronica Jamnik, and Shannon Bredin. The first peer reviewed article containing the PAR-Q+ was published in the Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada and subsequent updates have been made through this journal. Owing to the evidence-based nature of the PAR-Q+ and ePARmed-X+ both forms require routine update as the evidence expands. These ongoing revisions are made by the PAR-Q+ Collaboration and evaluated by an international consensus committee. This article contains the 2019 PAR-Q+ that includes significant changes from our original version. This version replaces all previous versions. This is the current evidence-based and consensus panel approved version of the PAR-Q+. We are indebted to the support provided by the American College of Sports Medicine and other international partners in the ongoing evaluation of the 2019 PAR-Q+.&nbsp;</p> Darren E. R. Warburton, Veronica Jamnik, Shannon S. D. Bredin, Roy J. Shephard, Norman Gledhill ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/270 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0800 The 2019 Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (PAR-Q+): French North America Version (Questionnaire sur l'aptitude à l'activité physique pour tous (2019 Q-AAP+)) https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/271 <p>This article contains the current 2019&nbsp;<strong>CONSENSUS PANEL APPROVED AND OFFICIAL FRENCH</strong>&nbsp;version of the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire for Everyone (Questionnaire&nbsp;sur l'aptitude à l'activité physique pour tous (Q-AAP+)). This version replaces all previous versions. This is the current evidence-based and consensus panel approved version of the Q-AAP+.</p> Darren E. R. Warburton, Veronica Jamnik, Shannon S. D. Bredin, Roy J. Shephard, Norman Gledhill ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/271 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0800 Indigenous Elders’ Role in Fostering Intergenerational Relationships with Youth https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/265 <p>The purpose of this student driven commentary is to explore the importance of intergenerational relationships between Indigenous Elders and youths. Indigenous Elders play an important role in fostering intergenerational relationships and passing on cultural and traditional teachings. They pass on traditional knowledges and lessons learned from a lifetime of experiences to the next generation through a variety of means (such as sharing circles and storytelling) to help future generations understand and honour the teachings and understandings of the generations before. Elders play a central role in the passing on of traditional beliefs, language, and cultural practices, which empower Indigenous youth to connect with family and community, promoting ties to the land. Elders are role models supporting a positive cultural identity and establishing ties to Indigenous traditions, values, and practices.</p> Tommy Yang, Darren E. R. Warburton ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://hfjc.library.ubc.ca/index.php/HFJC/article/view/265 Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 -0800