The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify; margin: 0in 0in 0pt;"><span lang="EN-CA">The Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada provides an effective medium for health and fitness practitioners, researchers, instructors, and the general population to provide insight into unique and innovative practice in health and fitness. It is our goal to make a journal that can be applied directly to improve the health and well-being of Canadian society.</span></p> Health & Fitness Society of BC en-US The Health & Fitness Journal of Canada 1920-6216 <p><strong>Terms of Publication</strong></p><p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada’s right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</li><li>The Contributor (author(s)) represents and guarantees that the Contributor is the sole proprietor of the work and the Contributor has full power to make this Agreement and grant that the work does not infringe the copyright or other proprietary right of any other person; and the work contains no libellous or other unlawful matter and makes no improper invasion of the privacy of any other person. The Contributor also represents and is responsible for the accuracy of the work.</li><li>The Contributor will read, correct, and return promptly galleys and page proofs to the Editor (or designate). The Contributor will be responsible for the completeness and accuracy of these corrections. If the Contributor does not return galleys and page proofs within the schedule agreed upon with the Editor (or designate), the Publisher may proceed without the Contributor corrections.</li><li>When applicable, the Contributor agrees to obtain written permissions and letters of agreement for all matter contained in the work that is protected by existing copyright, paying any permission fees for the use of text or illustrations controlled by others, and furnishing the Publisher with written evidence of the copyright owner’s authorization to use the material.</li><li>When applicable, the Contributor agrees to obtain written permission for inclusion of any photographic materials involving a human subject, and provide the Publisher with written evidence of the subject’s authorization to use this material. In the case of subjects who have not reached the age of majority, the Contributor agrees to obtain and furnish the Publisher with written permission from the parent and/or legal guardian.</li><li>The Contributor may draw on and refer to material in the work in preparing other articles for publication in scholarly and professional journals and papers for delivery at professional meetings, provided that credit is given to the work and to the Publisher.</li><li>This agreement may not be changed unless the Contributor and the Publisher agree to the change by means of a formal addendum signed by the Contributor and the Publisher’s representative.</li><li>This agreement shall be construed and governed according to the laws of the province of British Columbia and shall be binding upon the parties hereto, their heirs, successors, assigns, and personal representatives. Should any formal proceedings related to this agreement be brought, such formal proceeding may be brought only in the province of British Columbia.</li></ul><p>By submitting an article to the Health &amp; Fitness Journal of Canada the Contributor has accepted and agreed to all terms outlined in the copyright notice.</p> Canada’s New Healthy Eating Strategy: Implications for Health Care Professionals and a Call to Action <p>Nearly two-thirds of all deaths worldwide are from noncommunicable chronic diseases, with a similar proportion in Canada. According to the Global Burden of Disease Study, unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and the second leading risk for disability in Canada. It is clear that to adequately address this major health issue, we need a comprehensive approach that includes strong governmental policy. In 2016, the Canadian government released its Healthy Eating Strategy, for which updating Canada’s Food Guide was a key element. The government released the first wave of documents (including the new food guide and dietary guidelines) in January 2019, with the healthy eating patterns guidance to follow later in 2019. Much of this work aligns with a number of policies that have been developed and adopted by the Canadian health and scientific organizations that are members of the Canadian Hypertension Advisory Committee. As such, the current editorial is a call to action for the health care and scientific community, both individuals and organizations, to ensure they have policies consistent with and supportive of those that have been developed through the Hypertension Advisory Committee collaboration and to actively participate in providing input and feedback on the Healthy Eating Strategy through the Health Canada Stakeholder Registry.</p> Simon Bacon Norm R. C. Campbell Kim D. Raine Ross T. Tsuyuki Nadia A. Khan Manuel Arango Janusz Kaczorowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-30 2019-03-30 12 1 3 16 10.14288/hfjc.v12i1.275 A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Lower Body Aquatic Plyometric Training: The Development of Evidence-Based Recommendations for Practitioners <p><em>Objectives: </em>Plyometric exercises are often prescribed for enhancing athletic performance, however, this form of training can elicit significant skeletal loading which may defer practitioners from utilizing these exercises throughout rehabilitation. <em>Purpose</em>: 1) complete a systematic review to critically examine the efficacy of plyometric training performed in water when compared to land for eliciting changes in musculoskeletal markers of performance, and 2) to provide evidence-based recommendations for practitioners on how best to utilize this form of training in rehabilitation and return-to-play. <em>Methods</em><strong>:</strong> A systematic review was undertaken with relevant studies identified that compared changes in performance markers (e.g., strength, sprinting, and jumping) between the same aquatic- and land-based plyometric program were eligible for inclusion. Data was extracted using a standardized extraction form as confirmed by three reviewers. Data extraction included population characteristics, program design, and pre- and post- adaptations in strength, speed, and vertical jump. <em>Results:</em> Eight studies were included comparing performance outcomes following aquatic- and land-based plyometric training. The results of this review suggest that aquatic plyometric training is as effective as land-based plyometric training at improving lower body strength, sprint, and vertical jump performance. <em>Conclusions:</em> The utilization of aquatic plyometric training can be an important piece of the rehabilitation and return-to-play process in order to improve lower body strength, speed, and power while reducing the physical stress of land-based plyometric training.</p> Nicholas James Held Andrew S Perrotta Lauren K Buschmann Shannon S.D. Bredin Darren E.R. Warburton ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-18 2019-02-18 12 1 17 33 10.14288/hfjc.v12i1.266 I blame my parents for my waistline. But is this genetic alibi valid? <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong><br> </strong></p> <p><strong>Roy J. Shephard<sup>1</sup></strong></p> <p><strong>____________________________________________________</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective. </strong>The objectives of this narrative review are to consider the contribution of inherited factors to the development of obesity and its response to treatment, and the extent to which an adverse inheritance provides a "genetic alibi" to those who are obese. <strong>Methods. </strong>Information obtained from Ovid/Medline and Google Scholar through to December 2018 was supplemented by a search of the author's extensive personal files.<strong> Results. </strong> Animal models demonstrate that specific single genetic mutations can cause severe obesity, as in ob/ob and db/db mice and in the Zucker fatty rat. In humans, also, traditional genetic studies of adopted children, twins and entire families point to a substantial contribution of inheritance to such measures of obesity as BMI. However, perhaps because of a lesser impact of a shared family environment, estimates of heritability coefficients are substantially smaller for family studies (a 50th percentile coefficient of 0.46) than for twin studies (a 50th percentile coefficient of 0.75). Estimates of heritability vary widely for both approaches, with populations that are faced by an obesogenic environment tending to show higher values for coefficients derived from either type of data set. Attempts to link such heritability estimates to specific genetic sites have as yet been able to account for less than 5% of the total inter-individual variation in BMI. The main probable factors limiting the discovery of relevant chromosomal sites are a polygenic rather than monogenic basis for obesity and a strong modification of gene expression by epigenetic influences. <strong>Conclusions. </strong>Inherited factors appear to make a substantial contribution to the accumulation of body fat. Nevertheless, the validity of the "genetic alibi" is weakened in that dietary moderation and regular physical activity can greatly limit the phenotypic expression of obesity-inducing genetic characteristics.</p> Roy J. Shephard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-18 2019-02-18 12 1 34 79 10.14288/hfjc.v12i1.268 On determining how much obesity is costing society <p><strong>Objectives:&nbsp;</strong>The objectives of this narrative review are to examine techniques used in determining the health costs accrued by obese individuals, and to estimate the overall costs of the current obesity epidemic to society.<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; Methods:&nbsp;</strong>Information obtained from Ovid/Medline and Google Scholar through to August 2018 was supplemented by a search of the author's personal files.<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; Results:&nbsp;</strong>Reasons for undertaking an economic analysis of obesity include the generation of favourable publicity, reviewing the efficacy of current treatment programmes, considering the effects of expanding or compressing therapeutic options, and assessing the need for alternative treatments. Technical difficulties in making such estimates include both differences in the relative impacts of overweight, moderate and gross obesity and the more general issues faced by all health economists: differential rates of inflation, varying international exchange rates, an appropriate choice of discount rate, and regional differences in medical costs, treatment patterns, job participation rates, and employee benefits. Allowance must also be made for secular shifts in population profile, opportunity costs of obesity and its treatment, losses due to the premature death of workers, and the value of services contributed by volunteers. In most developed countries, an excessive accumulation of body fat accounts for 2-5% of total medical expenditures, and in the U.S. costs are as high as 5-9%, with even larger indirect costs. Problems arise when obese individuals travel by plane or car. Per capita greenhouse gas emissions are also greater for the obese, and they experience a significant loss of potential human capital. &nbsp;<strong>Discussion and Conclusions:&nbsp;</strong>The validity of current estimates of the economic costs of obesity remains vulnerable to a substantial interaction and overlap between charges attributable to obesity and those due to physical inactivity. The respective magnitude of these 2 effects remains to be clarified by careful multivariate analyses, using samples with reliable and valid objective measures of habitual physical activity. Such an analysis is important, because&nbsp;it should influence the allocation of resources for both prevention and treatment.</p> Roy J. Shephard ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-30 2019-03-30 12 1 80 116 10.14288/hfjc.v12i1.276 Importance of Spiritual Wellbeing in Community-Based Health Interventions in Indigenous Peoples in BC <p><strong><em>Background:</em> </strong>The health gap between Indigenous peoples and other populations in Canada is of concern. Various health promotion and wellness programs have been attempted in Indigenous communities, but many of these programs have been ineffectual partly because they are not culturally sensitive, culturally relevant, or wholistic. <strong><em>Purpose: </em></strong> This narrative review discusses the foundational concepts of wholistic health and community-based programming with reference to two programs based at the University of British Columbia (UBC), the Tu’Wusht Garden Project and the Summer Science Program, that integrate spiritual wellbeing into health programming. We further discuss how the frameworks from these programs can be used in other Indigenous communities. <strong><em>Foundational Concepts:</em> </strong>The wholistic or Indigenous model of health is guided by the teachings of the Medicine Wheel and includes mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing. While current health programs often address physical, emotional, and mental wellbeing, they frequently fail to incorporate spiritual wellbeing because of how diffuse spiritual wellbeing can be as a concept for health practitioners in Canada. <strong><em>Discussion:</em> </strong>The Tu’Wusht Garden Project utilizes traditional activities (like gardening and ceremony) to integrate spiritual health into programming and engage Indigenous community members in health programming. The UBC Summer Science uses a contemporary Two-Eyed Seeing approach to blend Western and Indigenous health lessons. This includes spiritual health into programming and offsets any weakness of Western or Indigenous health models. Both programs have received strong support from Indigenous peoples. <strong><em>Conclusions:</em> </strong> Collectively, these programs demonstrate the importance of including spiritual health lessons within health and wellness programming within Indigenous communities.</p> Michael Salloum Darren E. R. Warburton ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-18 2019-02-18 12 1 117 123 10.14288/hfjc.v12i1.264